Different Types of Dyslexia

First off, let’s see if we can clear up some of the confusion and get a clearer perspective on what the word “dyslexia” really means.

It is important to understand that there are two different schools of thought, two different ways in which the word “dyslexia”itself is used. The two different meanings of dyslexia are:

  • In the pure academic sense the word “dyslexia” has a literal meaning based on the etymology of the word itself. From its parts, ‘Dys’ means wrong or problematic (for example, as in ‘dysfunctional’) and ‘lexia’, means pertaining to words and letters. So literally, ‘dys’-‘lexia’ refers to problems with words.

In this sense, anyone who has a problem with reading, for whatever reason, has dyslexia.

  • There is a wider use and application, used by parents of dyslexics and by dyslexic adults. In the applications sense, dyslexia refers to a range of symptoms that includes problems with reading, writing and spelling plus other problems such as hearing difficulty, poor memory and a lack of physical coordination.

And so, as you can see, the exact meaning of “dyslexia” depends on who is speaking and the context in which the term is being used.

Secondly, let’s look at the different types of dyslexia..

The first attempt to subdivide and describe the different types of dyslexia was made by Marshall and Newcombe in 1973. They set forth the ideas of ‘surface’, ‘phonological’ and ‘double-deficit’ dyslexia.

The symptoms of Surface Dyslexia relate to the mistakes made where the rules of English pronunciation are inconsistent. For example, “bowl” is read as though it rhymed with “howl”, and “pretty” might be read as though it rhymed with “jetty”.

Phonological Dyslexia is a failure to grasp the phonic nature of the English language. Individuals with it have great problems reading new or nonsense words because they do not and cannot grasp the links between the individual sounds or phonemes and letters on the page.

Double-Deficit Dyslexia is the term applied to the condition of individuals who have both Surface Dyslexia and Phonological Dyslexia.

Auditory Dyslexia and Visual Dyslexia both stem from the magnocellular theory of dyslexia. This theory holds that dyslexics have neurological weaknesses in the magnocellular cells of the thalamus area of the brain. This area is where rapid processing of visual and auditory information takes place.

Many studies have shown that dyslexics do have weaknesses in their visual and auditory processing, but not to the same degree. This means that there is a very close relationship and sometime confusion between these two types of dsylexia.

A result can be that a child with poor hearing skills but with average visual skills may be diagnosed as having Auditory Dyslexia, whereas one with poor visual skills but average hearing may be diagnosed as having Visual Dyslexia.

Then finally there is Orthographic Dyslexia. Orthography is the set of symbols or letters that make up a language. In English this is the 26 letters of the alphabet whilst in Japanese or Chinese it covers thousands of different symbols. And so Orthographic Dyslexia relates to problems in identifying and manipulating letters in reading, writing and spelling.

Diagnose Asthma Symptoms

Your doctor will run several tests to find out whether you do have asthma. He will likely ask you if any of your family members have ever been diagnosed with Asthma. Some people think it is hereditary in most people. Have you ever been tested to see if you have Asthma? Your doctor may decide to test you with what is called a peak flow meter. It is an easy to use devise that can tell how well your lungs pull air in and out. Your peak flow meter can also be an early warning device to warn you of an oncoming attack. This will give you the time to make the preparations and give your body a fighting chance.

Causes for Asthma will still vary from person to person. Maybe it comes from what is in our food, maybe it comes from what is in our water. Let’s think about what is in the air we breathe. Because the pollution will continue to become worse and worse, the cases of Asthma are going up. Years ago before our earth was polluted, there were much fewer cases of asthma and other diseases. As we have damaged our earth over the years, our health is slowly deteriorating to the point to where our bodies are having trouble fighting back. The toxins are over whelming for our bodies. Our bodies have the ability to get these toxic problems out. The problem is, it is being overrun with them now. What your body cannot get rid of on its own, it absorbs and that is a pretty scary thought.

Something you can do in your own home to prevent Asthma attacks after you have been diagnosed with it, is making sure your house is Dust mite free. Make your home smoke free. Second hand smoke is one of the leading causes of attacks for people with Asthma. Pets also play a role. If you notice you or someone in your family that has been diagnosed with Asthma starts to have more attacks around pets. You may need to have that pet become an outdoor pet or live in only one part of the house. Mold is also a big trigger for someone with Asthma. They can grow in so many places, some beyond the sight of most people. Mold can grow in walls and in attics. If you suspect that mold may be in your house, have an inspector come to check and see if you do in fact have a mold issues.

Be aware of your environment. The news will often warn people of outdoor pollution, whether you can burn fires. You can then decide whether or not you even want to step outside and take a breath. Be aware of what foods you take into your body and make sure that all fruits and vegetables are washed thoroughly. Much of what we take into our bodies can have an adverse affect on our immune system. It can mean the difference between having an asthma attack, or avoiding an asthma attack all together. Together we can change this world, but unfortunately, what we have done already will have consequences for many years to come.

Blurry Vision in One Eye

There are several causes of blurry vision. One of them is a need for eyeglasses. If a patient suffers from myopia or hyperopia, glasses may be needed. In nearsightedness and astigmatism, objects from a distance may appear blurry but nearby objects may be clear. The blurring that happens may be more acute at night or patients may experience seeing ghostly images or double vision. Usually, those in the mid-40s develop a need for reading glasses. Another cause of blurry vision could be cataract. Most people think cataracts only occur in older people, but it can also occur in younger people. Cataracts commonly occur in people who are over 50 years of age. Symptoms that accompany blurry vision include problems with seeing at night, glare problems and color problems. While this is a cause for concern, cataracts do not cause pain or the feeling that something is stuck in the eye. Other causes may be macular edema, macular degeneration, optic neuritis and diabetes.

Blurry vision in one eye can also be traced to flu. When you’re sick, your immune system is down so you are most susceptible to infections. If you happen to be coughing as well, you might have also burst a blood vessel at the back of your eye.

You should call your doctor if you experience the following symptoms: if you see flashes in your vision, if you get the sensation that a curtain is being lowered into the part of your vision and if you have become unusually sensitive to light. Go see your doctor too if you have a foreign object lodged in your eye, if your contact lenses become uncomfortable if your blurry vision occurs right after an accident. This blurry vision may signal that you have internal bleeding or you might have fractured the bone surrounding your eye. Your doctor might recommend that you undergo laser eye surgeries or procedures that can relieve you of the discomforts you are experiencing.

About Diagnosing Anxiety Symptoms

Other not so obvious anxiety symptoms include, sharp chest pains and difficulty swallowing like the throat is swollen. Many people don’t seek help or treatment for these problems. This might be because the symptom seems insignificant especially if they are intermittent and common such as headaches and muscle tension.

Usually when we have a stomach ache or a headache we simply go down to the store and by some over the counter medication. Some people perhaps realize that they have a problem but are too afraid or embarrassed to seek help. For people with agoraphobia and social anxiety this might be especially difficult.

Others ignore their anxiety symptoms until it becomes a really big problem. Because anxiety disorders are so prevalent most people don’t take notice. Most of us see stress as part of life even though it is one of the biggest causes of health problems. Excessive anxiety and stress can lead to depressive, anxiety and sleep disorders.

Identifying anxiety symptoms is the first stage in recovery. Seek a specialist or qualified doctor who will be able to diagnose and treat you. It’s important to tell them all of your symptoms so that they can make an accurate diagnosis. Your doctor should be asking various questions to pin down whether you have an anxiety disorder and what kind of disorder it is.

There are actually many different types of anxiety disorders, each with varying symptoms and methods of treatment. Common anxiety disorders such as social anxiety and Generalized Anxiety Disorder affect millions of people world wide. What’s more they can look quite different from sufferer to sufferer.

Physical health conditions can exacerbate anxiety symptoms and be the trigger of anxiety disorders. They can also run in families so your doctor should ask about your family’s history of health problems. Traumatic and emotional events are also potential triggers for anxiety disorders such as PTSD. Your doctor might also ask about lifestyle habits such as diet and exercise habits.

Stimulants such as cigarettes and alcohol are also likely to play a role in increasing anxiety symptoms. Your physical examination should be followed by a psychiatric evaluation to help determine your condition. If you think that you have a problem it’s important to seek help. Treatment is the best way to overcome anxiety symptoms.

About Roles of a Cardiologist

A cardiologist is able to handle different conditions and they include hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart murmurs and even heart attacks. The cardiologist needs to practice preventive medicine, treat heart diseases and also give a diagnosis of the same when there is a need to. The cardiologist may also be required to perform surgical procedures, even though they are limited to the minor ones.

Preventive medicine

Heart problems are usually chronic and they may be around for a very long time. This is why the cardiologist works so hard at the preventive medicine so as to neutralize and eventually reverse progression of disease. The cardiologist has to conduct a physical examination as well as an interview of the patient so as to establish their condition and also predict if there may be issues with the heart. There is also a need to prescribe some form of medication for patients and also give advice on lifestyle so as to ensure the heart health of the patient is sustained and improved.

Diagnostic testing

The main tool that a cardiologist uses is the echocardiogram abbreviated as ECG. This allows the cardiologist to know whether the heart health of the patient is fine or not. It is the role of the cardiologist to interpret the results as seen. He should also interpret other results conducted on the urine and blood of the patient. The stress test is also conducted and then reviewed. Cardiac catheterization tests are also conducted to establish how the heart is functioning.


This is a cardiology specialty and it focuses mainly on treating any disorders related to the rhythm of your heart. The cardiologists implant a pacemaker into a patient by doing a surgical procedure that is quite brief. Electrophysiology includes electronic defibrillation, which essentially gives a shock to the heart so as to help it restart it to have a regular heart rhythm.

Benefits Of Bentonite Clay

Dietary Toxins

It’s important to note that Aflatoxin is a mold-like compound that is emitted by organisms that live on different crops. The problem is that these toxins are detectable in cooking oils and peanut butter. According to research, these substances can have a negative impact on the immune system. Aside from this, Aflatoxins can also lead to liver damage. Based on animal models, it has become evident that bentonite clay can help with the prevention of health damage caused by the ingestion of aflatoxin.

Environmental Toxins

VOCs, which is short for volatile organic compounds is a term that refers to different chemicals that come out of cleaning supplies, office equipment, paint, pesticides, permanent markers, and building materials, just to name a few. Most people breathe in these places. According to experts, bentonite clay absorbs VOCs and reduces your exposure to the dangerous substances. Research is still on to find out the proper use of bentonite for fighting VOCs.

Toxic Metals

Typically, bentonite clay is used to clean your system of toxic compounds, especially toxic metals that degrade your health with the passage of time. As a matter of fact, metals that cause the most damage include benzene, lead, cadmium, and mercury, just to name a few. Aside from this, the metals are also found in building materials, drinking water and the environment. According to a study, bentonite clay reduces the effects of the harmful metals.

Contaminated Soil

Land near roads or highways is also contaminated with different metals, toxic chemicals, and pollutants, just to name a few. Most of the soil contamination is the result of decades of accumulation. Many of the chemicals interfere with the soil quality and the production of crop. Moreover, organic chemical compounds, such as xylene, toluene, and benzene are found in this type of contaminated soil. Aside from this, the exposure to these chemicals may result in severe health effects. Also, bentonite clay can reduce soil contaminates.

Orthopedic Doctors

There are plenty of situations when you should see the doctor. Some of these situations include:

Difficulty performing everyday tasks: It’s common to have joint and bone discomfort especially if you are old; however, if you have been having the discomfort for a long time to the extent that you are unable to execute your daily activities, it’s time to visit the doctor. Some of the tasks that you might be unable to perform include: cleaning the utensils, climbing the stairs, or even sitting.

Chronic pain: You are said to be suffering from chronic pain if have been having the pain for the last 12 weeks. When you have an injury it’s common to have the pain for sometimes, but it shouldn’t last for several weeks. Sometimes the injury might have caused a complication that you should address before it gets worse.

Soft tissue injury that hasn’t improved for two days: If you have fallen or slipped you might have a soft tissue injury. In most cases, soft tissue injuries heal within a matter of hours. If you have an injury and it’s now days and you are still feeling some pain, it’s time to contact a professional who will help you in getting over it.

Instability when walking or standing: A telltale sign that there is something wrong with your joints is feeling shaky or wobbly when performing basic tasks such as walking, sitting, or standing. You should consult a professional who will diagnose the condition and determine the source of the instability.

Reduced range of motion: A reduced range of the movement is a sign of tightening of the joints. It’s also common to have a compromised range of motion when you have arthritis. When the condition has reached a level where the motion is compromised, it’s a high time that you visit a specialist who will diagnose the condition and give you the necessary medications. In some cases, the professional might require you to undertake surgery especially if the situation has brought about a number of complications.

You just had an injury as an athlete: Athletes are known for their high-intensity workouts. If you are a footballer or any other professional and you just had an injury on the field, you shouldn’t ignore it-visit a professional as soon as possible. While the injury might seem simple on the surface, it might have resulted in a number of complications that might put your life in danger.

When you visit the orthopedic physician, there are many things you should expect from him/her. Some of the things include your history. The expert will like to know how you got the injury and how long you have been having the condition. To make the work easy for the doctor, answer the questions as honestly as you can.

The doctor might also want to undertake a number of tests to confirm the extent of the damage. Again you should comply to make the process a success.

Thyroid and Hemorrhoid

Both thyroid and hemorrhoid end in ‘oid’ (which is a suffix that means “like”, “resembling”, or “in the image of” – but don’t ask me to address that one – thigh-roid?)

I kindly told her no and explained to her the difference between those terms.

But even for people who know about the body there is still such a lack of knowledge and understanding about the thyroid gland.

According to Karilee Shames Phd RN, and her physician husband Richard, both of whom authored “Thyroid Power”, even the medical community lacks knowledge and understanding about this very important gland in our body. They say that thyroid conditions are under diagnosed and under treated.

January is Thyroid Awareness Month.

Over 60 million Americans have thyroid problems, and only 13 million are diagnosed.

In my “Green Tea with Marilee” interview with Karilee, she shared the many signs and symptoms of a thyroid imbalance, some of which are: fatigue, depression, overweight, dry skin, hair, nails, dry eye, low libido, high cholesterol, infertility, miscarriage, difficulty in menopause.

And that 80% of all thyroid sufferers are women.

Karilee described a typical scenario in our interview:

A woman goes in to see her physician and says “my hair is falling out in clumps, my eyes are dry, my skin is dry, my nails are brittle, I’m chilly all of the time, I’m depressed, and I’m gaining weight while hardly eating.”

What happens, Karilee says, is that the symptoms are usually managed without the underlying issue explored and the patient often ends up on anti-depressants and other unnecessary medication, which can make things worse.

Karilee talks about our toxic environment as a major culprit to this epidemic condition. She also talks about natural approaches that one can take to balance out the thyroid.

Reasons to Stop Eating Sugar


Sugar is highly addictive. Your body loves it because of all the easy-to-consume calories it provides.

Sugar is hyperpalatable, and that’s exactly what our brain wants and rewards for. In the distant past this was a sound strategy. Food was scarce, and tapping into rich energy source meant surviving in harsh environment.

Today, it rather means obesity and diabetes, but we can’t explain it to our subconscious.

In addition, sweet taste is a sign of food you can safely eat, and we learn it since we’re born thanks to our mother’s breast milk. That’s right, it’s also a little sweet because of the lactose it contains.

In short, sugar delivers a killer combo that’s hard to resist, hooking you up once and for all.


Addiction is not the only danger of sugar. This substance is also responsible for obesity epidemic we have on our hands.

Did you know that by 2050, obese people will constitute the majority of population? Well, sugar is responsible for it.

It does so in a pretty complicated way. First, it makes your body more insulin resistant. This causes your pancreas to work harder and produce more insulin each time you eat, storing large part of incoming calories in fat cells.

Second, extra insulin blocks the hormone called “leptin” which signals your brain you’ve eaten enough. This causes you to eat more because your body thinks it’s starving. Note this is partially true, because a serious chunk of your meal was just turned into fat.

Sugar also causes visceral fat, the most dangerous kind there is. There’s a term “T.O.F.I.”, which stands for “thin on the outside, fat on the inside”. This is a very serious condition, as organs coated with fat can fail any moment.

Diabetes and Cancer

Finally, sugar leads to deadly disease. The first one is diabetes. As you know, sugar causes your body to become more resistant to insulin. When you abuse sugar long enough, it becomes chronic.

When this happens, your body loses the ability to process the incoming food. Since most things you eat are converted to blood sugar before further processing, high insulin resistance means certain death. This is the point where people need insulin shots just to stay alive.

The corporations tell us that diabetes is hereditary, and this is partly true. The type 1 diabetes is indeed caused by the genes, but that’s absolute minority of cases. The majority is type 2, which can perfectly be acquired if you don’t watch your sugar intake.

The second threat associated with sugar is cancer. Numerous studies have shown that high levels of sugar can lead to development of cancer cells. It makes perfect sense because sugar is a great nutrient. Having lots of it in your bloodstream gives your enemy the energy to survive and flourish.

Think about it when you eat that extra chocolate bar. Do you really want to take a chance? Especially considering many other health problems that sugar causes directly or indirectly.

Making Your Eyeglasses Photochromatic

Building Blocks

The substances responsible for photochromatic property of a lens are microcrystalline silver halides (usually silver chloride). These substances embed into glass version of lenses to make them photochromatic. Photochromatic lens contains millions of silver halides crystals. When exposed to sunlight, UV rays transform the crystals into light-absorbing particles. As these particles absorb light, the lens darkens and the amount of light passing through the lens is reduced.

When the lenses are removed from sunlight and the stimulating UV radiation is no longer present, the crystals return to their original orientation and the lenses become clear.
Plastic lenses depends upon organic photochromatic molecules for their reversible darkening. The main reason these lenses darken in the sunlight and not in indoors is that indoor does not contain ultraviolet rays. The Photochromatic lenses come back to their original color due to thermal process. Because of this reason some lenses don’t work well in hot temperatures.

More on Photochromatic lenses.

The transition lenses are today most popular photochromatic lenses. Transition lenses are manufactured by transition optical. Transitions applies a thin layer of photochromatic particles in front of the surface of lenses instead of distributing light-sensitive particles throughout the lens material. The light sensitive material penetrate lens evenly and up to depth of 0.15 millimetres.